Abraham Lincoln was an American politician and lawyer. He was the 16th President of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in 1865, shortly before the start of the American Civil War. He leads America when it was suffering from moral, cultural, constitutional, and political crises. He succeeded in preserving the Union, abolishing slavery, strengthening the federal government, and modernizing the United States economy.
In April 1865, with Union victory on the horizon, “John Wilkes Booth,” known as a Confederate sympathizer, assassinated Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln was assassinated at a time when he was much needed to accomplish the great task of reuniting the American nation. He gave clear support and emphasis to democracy. This was valuable enough to preserve the ideals of the Union government.
Lincoln’s unique human personality and incredible influence on the nation gave him a lasting legacy. The assassination of Abraham Lincoln earned him the status of a martyr. He is widely regarded as the greatest president in the history of the United States.
Abraham Lincoln Biography:
- Name: Abraham Lincoln
- Born: 12 Feb 1809
- Father: Thomas Lincoln
- Mother: Nancy Hanks
- Birthplace: Hodgenville, Kentucky, USA
- Nationality: US
- Profession: Politician, Lawyer
- Died: 15 April 1865 (age 56)
Abraham Lincoln is the most prominent of the many humanist and democratic statesmen born in the history of the world. Lincoln was born in 1809 in a family of carpenters in a village in Kentaffi Province, America. Professionally His father Thomas Lincoln was a carpenter. He knew nothing about education. He used to support his family through manual work.
Abraham Lincoln’s Childhood:
In 1817, a land dispute forced the Lincoln family to move from their native Kentucky to Perry County in southern Indiana. It was here that Lincoln’s childhood and adolescence were spent in the lap of nature in a sparsely populated environment.
Lincoln’s father built a house with large logs at one end of the forest. He used to make a living by woodworking and hunting. Working with his father, Lincoln also became hardworking from childhood. He equally helped his father in wood cutting, fishing, and farming.
Lose Mother at 9 Years Old:
On October 5, 1818, when Lincoln was only nine years old, his mother died at the age of 34. Since then, he and his younger sister used to do household chores.
A woman previously known to Lincoln’s father was prematurely widowed with three children. Considering the need for a woman in the family, in December 1819, a year after his mother’s death, Lincoln’s father, Thomas married a widow named Sarah Bush Johnston. Lincoln showed strong humanity at this time. But his second mother was a very loving woman, to whom Lincoln was able to adapt quickly. And Sarah Bush Johnston was a cheerful, healthy woman, even she was as industrious also intelligent. In a short time, she changes the face of the family.
Lincoln Was Elected as Their Captain:
In March 1830, the LincoIn family moved again, this time to Macon County in southern Illinois. When his father then moved the family back to Coles County, the 22-year-old Lincoln began to earn money to support the family himself. Lincoln found work on a flatboat operating freight boats on the Mississippi River.
Lincoln was a man six feet four inches tall. Young Lincoln eventually moved to New Salem, Illinois, where for several years he worked as a storekeeper, postmaster, and eventually general store owner. It was there that Lincoln developed social skills working with the public and a talent for storytelling that made him popular with the locals.
When the Black Hawk War broke out between the United States and Native Americans in 1833, local volunteers elected Lincoln as their captain. He did not see any combat during this time but managed to make several important political connections during this time.
Educational Life of Abraham Lincoln:
Study opportunities and supply of educational materials in Indiana were not that great. And Lincoln’s father himself was not educated. He had no interest in the education of his children. But his stepmother was enthusiastic about this. A primary school was opened in that region through the efforts of some educated people.
Lincoln enrolled in that school with his stepmother’s interest. Lincoln had the opportunity to study in this school for only one year. A deep interest in studies developed in him. He used to take people’s help to buy books from city shops. He used to read that book while working in the field. At night, he used to solve maths by sitting by the light of the wood fire.
Neighbors later told how Lincoln would walk several miles into the neighborhood to borrow a book. He loved reading the Bible and other popular books such as Robinson Crusoe, Pilgrim’s Progress, and Aesop’s Fables. His favorite book as a teenager was the Bible, he read it countless times over and over again.
The influence of the Bible on his life was profound. This influence became evident in his later writings and speeches. Until the age of nineteen, Lincoln did not go anywhere other than the area around his village. During this time he had to go to the port of New Orleans to sell some goods under the employment of a merchant.
Abraham Lincoln and Slavery:
Once, Arriving at the harbor in a large boat, Lincoln saw a strange sight. In one place, Negro children, women, and men were being sold as slaves. The slaves were given to the highest bidder at the auction. Those who refused to go or who simply disobeyed were brutally whipped. Lincoln saw this inhumane scene and the system of slavery for the first time in his life! His mind was filled with pain.
He was so overwhelmed that day that he vowed in his heart that if he ever got the chance, he would do his best to eradicate this abominable practice. Selling goods in New Orleans, Lincoln profited greatly. The merchandise owner was pleased to hire Lincoln as manager of his New Salem warehouse. Entering his career, Lincoln used his free time to read books on various subjects. He was loved by everyone here for using honey. On that occasion, he got the responsibility of overseeing the work at the election center during the provincial elections.
Unknowingly, this is how Lincoln’s introduction to the world of politics happened.
Abraham Lincoln’s Work Life
Gradually he became attracted to politics. Lincoln was one of the handfuls of educated people in New Salem at the time. He became popular here in no time for his sweet personality, knowledge, frankness, and cooperative demeanor. James Rutledge owned an inn in New Salem. He was the biggest supporter of Lincoln. He was the first to encourage Lincoln to participate in local politics. Lincoln became attracted to James’ daughter Annie through frequent visits to the inn.
He was impressed at first sight. But a few days later, when he learns that Annie is engaged to a young man, Lincoln is traumatized by his first contact with a woman. But within a short time, he recovered from the injury. The businessman under whom Lincoln worked, his business fell through. Lincoln quit his job and started a business with a partner and the business picked up in a short time.
Abraham Lincoln’s Start in Politics and Becoming a Lawyer:
At this time, Lincoln took part in the provincial election of Ilia Province with the encouragement of a few admiring friends. But due to a lack of political experience, he lost the election. After the election failure, Lincoln took a job as a peon delivering letters and newspapers door-to-door in New Salem. He made good use of this opportunity and thus came into contact with the wider world. He would sit somewhere and read the newspapers carefully before delivering them to the owner’s house. He spent most of the day working like this.
At night he would sit back home with his books. In spite of all kinds of busyness, he never interrupted his regular studies.
After failing for the first time again, Lincoln became involved in local politics as a supporter of the Whig Party and won the election to the Illinois state legislature in 1834. This time he had to come to Illinois as an elected representative.
Known as a hero to his fellow Whigs, Lincoln, like Henry Clay and Daniel Webster, also opposed the expansion of slavery in these territories. He focused on expanding cities, focusing more on trade than agriculture. A great vision of the prosperity and progress of the United States can be seen in it.
Bringing Books From the Library:
He started studying by bringing books from the library during his retirement from council work. It was at this time that he decided to pass the law exam and enter the law business. Lincoln trained himself in law, passing the bar exam in 1836. The following year he moved to Springfield, Illinois, and began practice at the John T. Stewart law firm. For the next few years, he worked as a lawyer there and began providing legal assistance to clients ranging from individual residents of small towns to national railroad lines.
Lincoln gained fame as a lawyer in a short time due to his extraordinary talent and efficiency. His strong logic and wisdom would have easily defeated the opponent. Lincoln was a natural advocate of justice. Under no circumstances would he accept injustice. Because of that, if any false case came to hand, he would return it immediately. Along with establishing himself in the legal profession, Lincoln also became closely involved in politics. 1838, and 1840 He was elected twice as a member of the Board of Directors.
Marriage and Family Life of Abraham Lincoln.
A beautiful young woman, named Mary Todd, came to visit her grandmother’s house. Youths were easily attracted to her by his lively nature and interesting speech. Also, Mary Todd was a high-born, well-educated woman from a prominent Kentucky family.
Stephen Douglas was a member of the governing body. One day, Lincoln and Douglas went to the dance party. Mary was also present at that event. Despite Douglas’s noble manners and well-dressed clothes, Mary was drawn to Lincoln’s rough-and-tumble appearance. When the conversation deepened, Lincoln proposed marriage.
Lincoln married Mary Todd on November 18, 1842. When the couple got engaged in 1840, many of their friends and Mary’s family were present. This is what Lincoln himself asked himself. Unsure of what he should do, in 1841, the engagement was abruptly terminated at Lincoln’s instigation. However, Mary and Lincoln later met at a social event and eventually married in 1842.
Needless to say, Douglas was the only friend or colleague of Lincoln to be unhappy with the marriage.
After marriage, Lincoln started a law business in partnership with a young lawyer named William Herndon. Within a few days, a friendship developed between them. Their relationship lasted forever. Later, Herndon wrote a biography of Lincoln. At the insistence of his wife Mary, Lincoln once left his law practice in Springfield and came to Washington to live in seasonedly.
The Lincolns had four children, but sadly only one of them lived to adulthood. Robert Todd Lincoln (1843–1926), Edward Bucker Lincoln (1846–1850), William Wallace Lincoln (1850–1862), and Thomas “Tad” Lincoln (1853–1871).
When politics was Abraham Lincoln’s field:
Lincoln won the election to the US House of Representatives in 1846, and from then on he began to contribute to politics. As a congressman, Lincoln was unpopular with many Illinois voters for his stance against the Mexican-American War. He returned to Springfield in 1849, vowing not to seek re-election.
Some of these events brought him back to national politics. But the leading Democrat in the U.S. Congress, Douglass made a major splash in American politics by passing the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854). It declared that voters in each territory could decide whether to retain slavery based on territories, rather than a federal government.
On October 16, 1854, Lincoln debated the Kansas-Nebraska Act with Douglas before a large public in Peoria. He condemned slavery, saying that slavery and its expansion contradicted the founding principles of the American Declaration of Independence.
Lincoln joined the Republican Party in 1856, opposing the expansion of slavery, and ran for the Senate again that year. In June, Lincoln delivered his famous speech which is well known as “house divided”. In the speech, he illustrated his faith by quoting from the Gospels. He said that the government cannot pass through constantly half slaves and half free.
Abraham Lincoln’s Fight for Negros:
At Mary’s urging, Lincoln established himself as a member of the Central Executive Committee. Thus Lincoln fully devoted himself to politics and within a short time established himself as one of the leading political figures. In 1847, Lincoln was elected a member of the Washington Parliament, contesting the election of the central executive meeting on time after receiving the party nomination. As a teenager, scenes of slave traders’ markets in the port of New Orleans were vivid in Lincoln’s mind. After becoming a member of parliament, he first saw a similar scene.
Slave Camp Next to the White House:
A negro slave camp was built next to the White House, the presidential palace in Washington. From this camp, the negroes who are collected from various places are sent to southern markets to sell them. The slave trade in America began in the 16th century with a few Dutch traders. They were bringing twenty negroes from Africa and selling them in Jamestown. America was just beginning to be colonized at that time.
There is a huge demand for workers for various jobs. A group of money-grubbing businessmen from Europe took advantage of this opportunity. They brought men and women in droves from Africa and started selling them in America. The negro slave trade was once widespread in this way due to the greed for profit. Negro slaves were in demand throughout the American South.
Declaration of Independence:
By the time Lincoln was elected to the Washington House of Representatives, the number of Negro slaves in America was close to twenty million. After the Declaration of Independence, public opinion developed in various parts of America against the slave trade. The slave trade was outlawed. But despite this, the slave trade continued.
In the southern United States Cotton was grown extensively. As new textile mills were built as a result of the Industrial Revolution in England, America’s cotton exports increased. As a result, the need for labor in the southern region to increase cotton production increased more than before. Most southerners were strong supporters of slavery since independence for economic benefits. Lincoln was passionately anti-slavery.
Rejection of Slave Trade Bill:
He introduced a bill in Parliament to stop the slave trade in the Province of Columbia. But the bill was rejected due to majority opposition. Lincoln then became disillusioned with the political world. He returned to Springfield and recommence the practice of law. He lost his desire to return to politics. However, for a long time, he could not stay away from politics. Disturbed by the cruelty and injustice done to Negro slaves, he became vocal against this inhumane trade.
Lincoln Formed a New Party:
He strongly expressed the opinion that freedom was a cruel joke when half the people of the country are slaves. No nation can survive like this. In order to protest in an organized manner, Lincoln formed a new party called the Republican Party on his own initiative. As the organizer of the party, he explained the political ideals of the party to the countrymen in logical and strong terms. From this time Lincoln’s name spread around. In the meantime, southern states questioned their support for slavery and demanded secession from the United States.
Douglas, a member of the Democratic Party, spoke out in support of slavery. Lincoln protested strongly. Thus the rivalry of the youth re-emerged in the political arena of the country. The debate between Lincoln and Douglas stirred the nation. But both are equally eloquent. But Lincoln’s speech had morality, idealism, and patriotism and Emotion with logic. His speech easily touched people’s hearts. Lincoln dismissed the southern claims and declared, “There is no doubt that America will remain one and united.”
Lincoln ran for president on behalf of the Republican Party. And Douglas is the candidate for the Democratic Party. In the election, the people entrusted the leadership of the state to Lincoln. Lincoln won the election. Douglas lost, and Lincoln is the 16th President of the United States.
Civil War of America:
In 1861 AD Lincoln’s wife left Springfield and moved to Washington. He was sworn in as President on 4 March. On the same day, he announced that slavery should be abolished from the country. But under no circumstances will the country be divided. The southern states were shaken. They realized that this time there would be pressure on the economy of the south.
Almost immediately, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, and Georgia, led by South Carolina, seceded from the United States and formed the separate United States. The newly proclaimed president of the United States is Jefferson Davis.
Forced to keep the country intact, Lincoln declared war on the South. America’s bloody civil war began. The primary goal of this war was to preserve the Union. The second is the demolition of slavery.
Result of Civil War:
After a few days of the war, political factions were created. Even in the final chaos, Lincoln held the helm with a firm hand. Then on January 1, 1863, he finally declared the freedom of slaves and legally ended slavery. After that, Lincoln assigned the responsibility of the army of the northern region of the country to a former captain named Grant.
Grant’s steely fortitude and courage impressed him. Grant captured Fort Donelson within a few days and captured several southern towns in a surprise attack. Eventually, the formidable southern commander defeated Lee and captured one city after another. Lee fled and took refuge in the city of Richmond. The Civil War of America lasted 5 years.
Lee surrendered when the war ended. Lincoln came to Richmond with his army. Here to the gathering of Negroes he announced in a loud voice, “My poor friends, you are all free, free as the wind. You will never again have to bear the name ‘slave’, freedom is your birthright.” Upon his return to WashingtonHundreds greeted him.
Emancipation Proclamation and Gettysburg Address:
After the Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg), Lincoln issued a preliminary Emancipation Proclamation that took effect on 1st January 1863. The proclamation did not place all slaves in the rebel states under the control of the federal government but instead released them under the control of the states that professed allegiance to the Union. He proposed a constitutional amendment outlawing slavery (finally passed as the 13th Amendment after his death in 1865).
Two important Union victories in July 1863 at Wissburgh, Mississippi, and Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, finally turned the tide of the war.
In November 1863, Lincoln gave a short speech (only 262 words) at the dedication of a new national cemetery at Gettysburg. Widely acclaimed, the Gettysburg Address clearly expressed the purpose of the war. It became the most famous speech of Lincoln’s presidency and the most quoted speech in history.
Abraham Lincoln Won the 1864 Presidential Election:
In 1864, Lincoln faced a tough re-election battle against the Democratic nominee, former Union General George McClellan, but Union victories in the war (especially General William T. Sherman’s capture in Atlanta in September) would have thrown many votes the president’s way.
In his Second Inaugural Address, delivered on March 4, 1865, Lincoln advocated the need to reconstruct the South and rebuild the Union: “Not with malice towards anyone; With charity for all.”
As Sherman marched north through the Carolinas after marching from Atlanta to the sea, surrendering to Lee Grant at Appomattox Court House in Virginia on April 9, Union victory was imminent, and Lincoln gave a speech on the White House lawn in April.
Assassinated Abraham Lincoln:
On the night of April 14, 1865, actor and Confederate supporter John Wilkes Booth went behind the president’s box at Ford’s Theater in Washington, DC, and shot him in the back of the head. At this time, Lincoln was taken to a boardinghouse across the street from the theater, but he never regained consciousness. Abraham Lincoln died in the early hours of April 15, 1865.
The assassination made him a national hero. On April 21, 1865, a train carrying his coffin left Washington, D.C., via Springfield, Illinois, where he was buried on May 4. Abraham Lincoln’s funeral train traveled through 180 cities and seven states before being buried. So that mourners could pay their last respects to their loved ones.
Still, Lincoln’s birthday, the third Monday in February, is honored as President’s Day, along with George Washington’s birthday.
Young Abraham Lincoln:
Young Mr. Lincoln He is an American biographical drama film in 1939 about the first life of President Abraham Lincoln, directed by John Ford and starring Henry Fonda.
Ford and producer Darryl F. Zanuck fought for control of the film, with Ford destroying unwanted objects for fear that the studio would use them in the film. For Best Writing or Original Story, screenwriter Lamar Trotti was nominated for an Academy Award.
To preservation Young Mr. Lincoln was selected in 2003 in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as “historically, culturally, or aesthetically significant.” Source: Wikipedia.
- Henry Fonda as Abraham Lincoln
- Alice Brady as Abigail Clay
- Marjorie Weaver as Mary Todd
- Arlene Whelan as Sarah Clay
- Eddie Collins as Efe Turner
- Pauline Moore as Ann Rutz
- Richard Cromwell as Matt Clay
- Donald Mack as Prosecutor John Fielder
- Doris Bowden as Carrie Sue (falsely credited to Judith Dickens, who was apparently replaced by Bowden)
- Eddie Quillan as Adam Clay
- Spencer Charters as Judge Herbert A. Bell
- Ward Bond as John Palmer Cass
- Milburn Stone such as Stephen A. Douglas
- Cliff Clark as Sheriff Gil Billings