What is Carbon Fiber | Made of
Graphite fiber or carbon Graphite or carbon fiber is a fine fiber of carbon molecules with a diameter of 5 to 10 micrometers. In which the carbon molecules are arranged almost parallel and perpendicular in the crystal form. Because the carbon crystals are arranged vertically, the fibers are quite strong concerning their weight.
Moreover, to make a fiber or yarn of carbon fiber, several thousand fibers can be twisted in a row or paired to make yarn suitable for weaving. Therefore, some of the special religions of carbon fiber are high heat and pressure resistance, strong, light, extensibility, and non-reaction to other chemicals, this fiber has considerable popularity in aerospace, car manufacturing industry, ecology, military equipment industry, and sports industry.
Carbon Fiber Made of:
It is usually combined with other materials to create a composite material. It is combined with plastic resins to make stronger and stronger composite materials. And this new type of composite material is called carbon fiber reinforced material. This reinforced material is much stronger. In terms of mass and strength, this material is three times stronger than steel. It is an extremely strong material that is extremely light.
The carbon molecules in the fiber are arranged almost parallel and perpendicular to each other in crystal form. Because the carbon crystals are arranged vertically, the fibers are quite strong to weight ratio.
To make a strand or yarn of carbon fiber, tens of thousands of fibers can be twisted or twisted together to make a yarn suitable for weaving.
Carbon Fiber Preparation Method:
It is usually prepared primarily from acrylic Fiber. The acrylic Fiber used in this process is called Cortelli.
A three-step heating process is used to convert acrylic Fiber to it.
In the first stage, the acrylic fiber is heated to an oxidizing condition at a temperature of 200-300 degrees Celsius.
The above-oxidized Fiber is reheated to 1000. It removes the hydrogen and nitrogen atoms from the oxidized acrylic Fiber and leaves the carbon atoms behind. which form oriented fibrils in the form of hexagonal rings.
In the third stage, the carbonized filament is again heated up to 3000, which arranges the carbon atoms in a crystalline structure in the form of graphite. Carbon Fibers form a flat and parallel layer one after the other, which plays a significant role in creating high-modulus Fibers. The above steps complete the transformation one after the other to produce carbon Fiber that is black and smooth and has a slightly silky sheen.
Physical properties of carbon Fiber:
- Strength: 18-24
- Density: 195 g/cc
- Elongation before breaking: 05%
- Moisture Retention Capacity: 0%
- Abrasion resistance: Good
- Color: Black
- Resilience: Not good
- Heat Resistance: Good
- Chemical properties:
- Bleach Action: Sodium hypochlorite slightly oxidizes
- Action in sunlight: No change.
- Fire resistance: Very good.
- Immune to Insects: Not affected.
Classification of Carbon Fiber:
It can be classified according to its properties, purpose, production, etc.
1) Based on precursor Fiber materials:
- PAN-based CF.
- Pitch-based CF.
- Rayon-based CF.
- Vapor-grown CF.
2) Based on Manufacturing Methods:
- Carbon fiber (800∼1600◦C),
- Graphite fibers (2000∼3000◦C),
- Oxidative fibers (peroxidation fiber at 200∼300◦C).
3) Base Mechanical Properties:
- High-performance CF (HP); HP includes
- Middle strength type (MT),
- High strength type (HT),
- Ultra-high strength type (UHT),
- Intermediate modulus type (IM),
- High modulus type (HM),
- Ultra-high modulus type (UHM).
4. Based on Carbon Properties:
- Ultra-high-modulus, type UHM (modulus >450Gpa).
- High-modulus, type HM (modulus between 350-450Gpa).
- Intermediate-modulus, type IM (modulus between 200-350Gpa).
- Low modulus & high-tensile, and type HT (modulus < 100Gpa, tensile strength > 3.0Gpa).
- Super High Tensile and type SHT (tensile strength > 4.5Gpa).
What is Carbon Fibre Used in?
It is mainly used to produce sports goods. The United States currently consumes about 60 percent of the world’s production of carbon fiber, while the Japanese represent about 50 percent of the world’s production sector. Japan has nearly all of the world’s production capacity for pitch-based CF.
The key to the expansion of the carbon fiber market is the continuation of high-rate production systems and it is predicted that demand for the fiber will increase by 235 percent by 2020.
Due to some special properties of CF such as strong, light, high heat and pressure resistance, extensibility, and non-reaction to other chemicals, this fiber is very popular in aerospace, automotive industry, ecology, military equipment industry, and sports industry.
Some Other Uses of Carbon:
- Used in making nursery nightwear.
- Used in the manufacture of non-combustible fabrics.
- Alloyed with Aluminum used in aircraft structures.
- Space rockets are made of very strong and light material by mixing CF with resin and plastic.
- Used in aerospace, road, marine transport, and sports goods manufacturing.
- Used for racing cars.
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